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Heart attack

Heart attack, also referred to as the myocardial infarction is the death of a section of the myocardium, the muscle of the heart, which is caused by an interruption of blood flow to the area. A heart attack is due to obstruction of the coronary arteries. The most common cause is a blood clot (thrombus) in a field of a coronary artery which can be attributed with cholesterol-containing plaque to atherosclerosis is made under brings thick.

The factors that contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis include high blood pressure (hypertension), the levels of diabetes mellitus, elevated blood of lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, low density, smoking, and a family history of the disease. Particularly vulnerable to atherosclerosis are people and individuals in middle age with hereditary ziektehypercholesterolemia.

Typically, a person has a heart attack is experiencing severe chest pain, described as crushing, squeezing, or heavy, which is constant 30 to 60 minutes and sometimes experienced for long periods. It often radiates to the arms, neck, and back. The pain is similar to that of angina pectoris, but it is of longer duration. Other common symptoms include shortness of breath; sweating; nausea; rapid heart rate, often complicated by one or more arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats); and reduced blood pressure. The intensity of the symptoms depends on the size of the area of ​​muscle from this that is affected by the heart attack. A small percentage of individuals experience no pain; in these cases, the heart attack can be diagnosed by a routine electrocardiogram (ECG)

links: click here for insurance for building companies or finance for development . The emphasis of treatment is to limit the size of the region of tissue from lack of blood (infarction) and complications will be lost, such as preventing and treating arrhythmia. Thus, the sooner the heart rate can be monitored by an ECG and arrhythmia is more immediately reversed by defibrillation or with antiarrhythmic drugs or electrical shock, the greater the chance of survival. The pain is treated with analgesics such as morphine, and the peace and calm are required. Other drugs that can be administered include beta-adrenergic-blocking drugs (beta-blockers) to the heart muscle, the anti-coagulants (e.g., heparin) to clotting, fibrinolytic drugs to dissolve existing clots, and to relax to prevent the nitroglycerin to improve blood flow to the heart. Coronary thrombolysistherapie widely used; It involves the administration of drugs such as streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in order to prevent further blood clots from forming. Angioplasty or surgery coronary artery bypass extra measures for patients who require further treatment. The prognosis for patients who survive a heart attack is generally favorable, depending on the degree of injury to the heart.

Caring for Someone After Heart Surgery

Survival during and after a heart attack

The risk of death from an arrhythmia is greatest within the first few minutes after the start of a blockage in a coronary artery, or of acute ischemia (reduction of blood flow) occurs in the region of the heart muscle. Thus, from which is likely to die during the first two weeks after a major heart attack, almost half will die within one hour after the onset of symptoms.

Coronary heart disease

The coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease disease are characterized by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) due to the narrowing or blocking of a coronary artery by fatty plaques (see atherosclerosis). If the oxygen depletion is extreme, the effect may be a myocardial infarction (heart attack); as the hardship is insufficient to infarction (death of a section of heart muscle) to cause, the effect can angina pectoris, or cramps of pain in the chest are.

Heart Failure

The heart failure is the inability of one or both of the sides of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body. The term should be distinguished from heart attack, which generally refers to myocardial infarction, or death of a section of heart muscle. The condition is also different from heart block, a lack of coordination of the contractions of the upper and lower chambers of the heart, and of heart arrest, the sudden interruption of cardiac function

Prevention of coronary heart disease

To prevent heart disease doctors recommend that patients quit smoking; eating a diet in which about 30 percent of calories from fat that comes choosing polyunsaturated fats and avoid saturated fat and trans fat; Reduce high blood pressure; increase physical activity; and maintain weight within normal limits. Although the indirect evidence of many kinds of studies supporting these measures is impressive, not these measures have already shown that to be effective as expected or predicted.

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